Trade policy as a tool for the sustainable use of oceans

  • Kateřina Hradilová Palacký University Olomouc
  • Ondřej Svoboda Charles University Prague


Oceans are fundamental for the survival and well-being of people. Nevertheless, human behaviour in marine ecosystems has put oceans at risk. As the United Nations Agenda 2030 points out, the main challenges related to the sustainable use of oceans are increasing pollution, overfishing and loss of biodiversity. This paper discusses how trade policy can serve as a tool for the sustainable use of oceans. First, it provides an introduction to current trends in the world fishing industry and related sustainable development challenges. Subsequently, it describes the ongoing discussions related to fishery subsidies in the WTO. Finally, this paper provides an analysis of the commitments to sustainable fisheries embodied in EU and US FTAs. The conclusion suggests that actions are needed on multilateral, regional and bilateral levels. Negotiations in the WTO are in their final stage. If they are successfully concluded, they will provide an important multilateral framework. The current US approach represented by the USMCA has a larger scope than the EU FTAs as regards the provisions on trade and the sustainable use of oceans. Fishery subsidies, facilitation of free trade in sustainably managed fish products and sustainable management of fisheries have been identified as the key areas where the EU FTAs can be further strengthened.
Nov 18, 2019
How to Cite
HRADILOVÁ, Kateřina; SVOBODA, Ondřej. Trade policy as a tool for the sustainable use of oceans. Development, Environment and Foresight, [S.l.], v. 4, n. 1, p. 55-69, nov. 2019. ISSN 2336-6621. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 02 feb. 2023.